Discussion on packaging characteristics grouping a

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Discussion on grouping and coding of product packaging characteristics

packaging requirements are an important basis for product design and product acceptance. How to make packaging requirements scientific and reasonable plays an important role in promoting the development of the whole packaging work? To this end, we are preparing to research and develop the "intelligent decision system for product packaging requirements" (hereinafter referred to as "the system"), whose main purpose is in the process of product demonstration, ordering, development and acceptance. Through the analysis of packaging at home and abroad, to complete this system, we must first deeply study the factors that affect the packaging requirements. The packaging characteristics of products are one of the important reasons that affect the packaging requirements. In order to meet the requirements of packaging standardization, generalization and software implementation, it is necessary to study the grouping and coding of packaging characteristics from a macro perspective

I. classification of product packaging characteristics

product packaging characteristics refer to product characteristics related to packaging. Product characteristics include many aspects. From the perspective of influencing packaging requirements, at least the following 12 characteristics should be considered:

a. physical state

physical state is the existing state of the product, which mainly affects the packaging container. For example, liquid products can not be packaged in wooden boxes or cartons like natural products, but in barrels and cans

b. shape

the shape of the product mainly affects the structure, fixed form and unit packaging quantity of the outer packaging container

c. size and weight

the size and weight of products mainly affect the type, form and level of packaging containers and the stacking height during transportation and storage

d. structure

the structure of the product mainly affects the fixation mode of the product in the transportation packaging container

e. susceptible to chemical corrosivity

products are exposed to atmospheric environment, so they have different degrees of corrosivity. For example, ferrous metal (steel or iron) products are easier to rust than alloy metals. This characteristic of the product mainly affects the protection methods required during the transportation and storage of the product, such as moisture-proof, rust proof, water-proof, poison proof, etc

f. vulnerable to physical damage

products are mainly affected by impact and vibration loads during transportation. What shows this property is the inherent brittleness value attribute of the product itself, which mainly affects the protection method, that is, whether buffer packaging is required and the protection grade to be adopted

the external field force mentioned here mainly refers to electrostatic stress, electromagnetic stress, magnetic field and radioactive stress. This characteristic of the product will affect the protection methods adopted, that is, whether anti-static protection and anti electromagnetic protection are required

h. harmfulness

the harmfulness of products is mainly reflected in the aspects of flammability, explosion, toxicity, radioactivity, etc., which mainly affects the protection methods, protection grades, packaging marks and some special regulations during storage and transportation

i. load type

the load type can be divided into three types: light load, medium load and heavy load according to the structural strength applied by the contents to the transport packaging container. Light load refers to the product that is placed stably in the packaging container and will not move; Medium load refers to the product placed in the packaging container with partition and grid by binding or positioning; Heavy load refers to the products that fail to provide sufficient support for all plate surfaces of the transport container and the products that need high protection. This packaging characteristic of the product has an impact on the protection grade and the fixing method of the package in the packaging container

j. decomposition and combination

whether the product has the characteristics of decomposable combination has an important impact on cleaning, reducing packaging size and facilitating transportation

k. material compatibility

material compatibility is reflected in that cleaning materials, inner wrapping materials, binding materials and the surface of the product should be compatible with each other, and there should be no protection problems caused by the packaging itself

l. economy

the self value of the product has a great impact on the packaging, and it is reasonable to carry out according to the actual situation. 3. Equip all the experimental accessories required for the physical experiment of wood-based panels; Packaging, neither "under packaging" nor "over packaging" is allowed

II. The necessity of grouping product packaging characteristics

the so-called grouping is to group several things or features with the same attributes together. The grouping of product packaging characteristics is to extract and distinguish the key characteristics of the above 12 basic characteristics according to their similarities in one or some aspects that affect the packaging requirements. The grouping of packaging features is mainly based on the needs of packaging generalization and standardization as well as application design and implementation

1. the need for "two modernizations" of product packaging

"two modernizations" refers to the generalization and standardization of product packaging. China has a limited number of packaging materials and containers. There are about 130 mature standard packaging materials and containers, while there are thousands in the United States. To improve the standardization and generalization of packaging, it is necessary to comprehensively, systematically and deeply study the category, connotation, impact on packaging requirements and their combination of product packaging characteristics from a macro perspective, starting from millions of products. Because it is not a certain characteristic that directly requires a specific protection method, but several characteristics comprehensively affect one or some aspects of packaging requirements. After the packaging characteristics are reasonably grouped, the products are classified according to the packaging characteristics, so that the products with the same or similar packaging characteristics have unified packaging requirements, and the same packaging materials and containers are used, which greatly improves the degree of standardization and generalization of packaging

2. software design and implementation require information coding technology to be used in the design and implementation of

"system". The basic principles of information coding are:

a. uniqueness principle

information code is the symbol of information. It is required that the same information has a unique code, that is, there is a one-to-one correspondence between information and code. In this system, different product packaging characteristics have different requirements for packaging, so different packaging characteristic codes correspond to different packaging requirements. If the above 12 product packaging characteristics are not grouped, different packaging characteristics may have the same packaging requirements. For example, the same packaging container can be used for different shapes. Therefore, different codes correspond to the same packaging requirements

b. brevity principle

the more digits of the code, the higher the processing speed and storage requirements of the computer, and the longer the code, the more errors are likely to occur in the programming process. Therefore, the number of digits of the code should be reduced as much as possible without affecting the system function and system capacity of the building

c. scalability principle

expandability is one of the important characteristics of the coding system. The loss caused by modifying the coding system because the code space does not adapt to the development of information is disastrous. With the continuous improvement of packaging engineering recognition and the continuous improvement of standardization, it is necessary to consider the development space of product packaging characteristics, and leave enough spare code for further improvement and software upgrading. If the original code of information is too long, plus the spare code, it violates the "principle of simplicity". Of course, scalability and simplicity are equivalent, and should be comprehensively considered in specific coding$ Page break $

III. grouping and coding of product packaging characteristics

since there is no research on grouping of product packaging characteristics in China at present, they mainly refer to the research ideas of the United States when doing this work. They code the packaging characteristics in terms of product surface material, product weight and size, and product surface protective agent type. The code is 4 digits, of which material accounts for 2 Weight, size and type of protective agent occupy 1 place respectively. Due to the low degree of standardization in China, based on the national conditions, the packaging characteristics are divided into four groups, namely, product material, precision, type and structure, size and weight. Each group is given a 1-digit code, which is a combination of letter code and number code. The details are as follows:

① product material

according to the influence of product material on protection methods in GJB 1653 packaging specification for electronic and electrical equipment, accessories and spare parts, Classify and code the surface materials of the products as follows (see Table 1):

Table 1 product material classification and code

material code

bare metal (iron, steel, alloy steel, magnesium) has a precision surface 1 use contact preservative a

do not use contact preservative 2 b

use contact preservative c

do not use contact preservative d

electroplating Phosphated or anodized metal has a precision surface e

no precision surface f

nonferrous metal, copper alloy has a precision surface g

no precision surface h

aluminum, Babbitt alloy, porous steel has a precision surface i

no precision surface j

metal k

plastic or fiber l

rubber m

leather n

optical glass, quartz, mica o

carbon, graphite, asbestos, ceramics Glass p

wood or cork q

cloth products and textiles r

paper s

other materials t

note: 1. all precision surfaces are prone to failure or failure when subjected to oxygen, moisture, sunlight, biology, temperature, time or other factors; Or not more than 1.6 μ M surface roughness and surfaces requiring high cleanliness, vulnerable to impact, vibration, wear or deformation

2. it is forbidden to use contact preservatives, which means that the product does not need to be coated with preservatives or the use will damage the product

② product precision

the product precision is mainly distinguished from the product's susceptibility to physical damage, and the brittleness value is the key attribute to characterize the product's susceptibility to physical damage. The product precision affects the protection method and protection grade. Refer to the product classification according to the brittleness value range in the military packaging engineering manual except for the experiments of stretching, tightening, ring stiffness, compression, ring flexibility, etc. for the classification and code of product precision, see table 2:

Table 2 product precision classification

product precision brittleness value range (g) description code

highly fragile products <25 mainly refer to some precision instruments Glass products 1

fragile products, equipment with machine buffer, electronic equipment 2

accessories of some important equipment for highly precise products, but with the continuous deepening of the research on the preparation process and performance of aerogel, 3

receiving devices of important equipment for precision products 4

relatively firm products, mechanical tools, etc. 5

firm products (non precision products)> 115 weldments, wood products Chemical products, etc. 6

③ product type and structure

product type and structure include the physical state, structure, type, combination and decomposition, load type, etc. of the product, which has an important impact on the protection method, protection grade, outer packaging container, fixed sealing method, etc. Considering these points, the classification and coding of product types and structures are shown in Table 3:

Table 3 product types and structures

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